SIVAKUMAR, V and SWAMINATHAN, G and Rao, P G and RAMASAMI, T (2009) Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: A boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16 (1). pp. 116-119.

Full text not available from this repository.


Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil–water emulsification process and solid–liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2–5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In the present paper, summary of our research findings from employing this technique in various unit operations such as cleaning, diffusion, emulsification, particle-size reduction, solid–liquid leaching (tannin and natural dye extraction) as well as precipitation has been presented

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Engineering > Chemical Engineering
Depositing User: Dr. PK Barooah
Date Deposited: 26 Dec 2011 11:00
Last Modified: 26 Dec 2011 11:01

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item